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Here is new horizone new world

Here is new horizone new world

On the coast of Patagonia, astronomer Alan Stern hid a semitrailer to block a telescope from the wind. There is not much after midnight on July 17 – the southern tip of the season – and 40 mph gusts rush through the landscape.

Stern, the head of the New Horizons mission to visit NASA’s Pluto, is one of the 56 scientists with twelve small telescopes scattered over 30 miles on the Atlantic coast of Argentina. Some of the windbreaks that make telescopes shake at a height of 15 feet high steel tarp, built with supplies switched by local hardware stores. Some get shelter in natural alcoves on the beach.

“The conditions do not like the observation,” Stern said. But above, the sky is clear.

After traveling 4 billion miles, New Horizons will use the target, at least 20 miles maximum, traveling 8 miles per second. (Click to expand)

Roen Kelly / Discover

Excavations in heaven: the shadow of 14 miles around the world, 4 billion miles, the discovery just a few years before. When these ancient objects are in front of the star in the background, starlight stars – like a mini eclipse – so that astronomers can enjoy the mystery, form and reflection of the mysterious world.

Data can tell the New Horizons team how to set up the spacecraft and change the camera when it comes to next year. The most important thing is that light insertion can reveal debris causing the spacecraft.

But when shooting stars in the dark is not easy. Shadow is located over Patagonia at 60.000 mph and the team has failed when two attempts before seeing this shadow are called occultation. “This is the last chance,” Stern said.

The misery is gone. Five of the 24 telescopes saw flash stars flashing like a grain of old, releasing details that they did not know before.

On July 17, 2017, astronomers traced the tiny telescope cleavage outside Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina. The city is dubbed “Wind Wind”. The group, led by Marc Buie of the Southwest Research Institute and his father’s New Horizons, should use SUVs and large trucks as windbreaks for stable instruments. But at that time, five telescopes were watching the MU69 2014 slope ahead of the distant stars.

Now, it is also beyond the eighth and a billion miles beyond Pluto – the most distant object found – the little prince of the planet is ready to close. The tiny red face, dubbed the 2014 MU69, is about a hundred kilometers long, the size of the red Manhattan size. On December 31, 2018, astronomer soldiers will calculate here for a few hours when NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft sways about 8 miles per second.

“You’ve been flown 400 degrees above zero for all this time, to be a good legacy that is sustained since the birth of the domestic solar system,” said Stern’s object for 4 billion years. “No one has ever been a target like this.”

At the end of the summer, astronomers are trying to triple to capture smaller shadows from a distant world because it can spread throughout our planet, such as a small eclipse, with 60,000 miles per hour. On June 3, he sent a telescope on the site in Africa and South America, but never seen a wide range of 14 to 25 miles.

On July 10, scientists pursued a shadow in the South Pacific on NASA’s SOFIA Boeing 747, which had a Hubble-sized telescope. They were found within 1 mile and second from the time and place they had planned, but were still missing. But this effort, combined with space telescope observation, permits the prophecy. In the third and final occasions, the MU69 team took on MU. The result now helps keep track of the New Horizons path.

Meeting with neighbors

Over the last century, our solar system has been divided into two groups: the terrestrial planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars – and the gigantic outer world. Then Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto in 1930. It is small and it is only in the periphery of the solar system.

Scientists are suspicious of extinction like this and some have predicted that it is part of the new third-planet empire. But Tombaugh has been searching for a year and never found another Pluto.

Here is the antidote for CRISPR

Here is the antidote for CRISPR

Arms race is played on your body. It is part of an invisible war that has invaded billions of years. When the virus hunts and infects bacteria, the bacteria that save bacteria save the defeated enemy pieces – DNA fragments – in the genome to detect and defend themselves from the attack. In response, the virus developed a counterattack.

The natural defense system for bacteria is called CRISPR-Cas9. And in 2012, the biochemist Jennifer Doudna, along with French microbiologist Emmanuelle Charpentier, changed genetics with a good idea.

What will happen if scientists can improve KRISPR as a tool to modify genes? Since then, Doudna and others have smashed this cellular weapon to cure diseases and create strong plants. Currently, scientists are trying other tasks: to avoid mutation that is not possible due to genetic modification.

To find the description of the tool, imagine the letters of the genome – G, A, T, C – written in piles of books in tens of stories. Guide R9 Shepherds Cas9 – acting like a pair of DNA scissors – in the right place, reaching only 20 letters and allowing scientists to change.

“CRISPR-Cas9 lets you find the right place,” says Joseph Bondy-Denomy, a microbiologist at the University of California at San Francisco. “This is a big problem.”

In reality, the global genetic editing revolution is underway. Attorney’s lawsuit for patent. Startups sell securities in NASDAQ. And this year, Oregon Health and Wellness University researchers have used the CRISPR to prove the genes that cause heart disease in the human embryo. This is the first CRISPR experiment in humans in the United States.

But despite the experience

the CRISPR always brings unintended consequences – genetic changes in the desired position. Scientists call this “off-target effect”. The casings do not always stop after the cuts have been made. Sometimes scissors crosses a day or two more days, treating other sites that look like targets but are not compatible.

“If you leave the device on time, [KRISIS KRISTEN] can have the ability to cause problems,” said Doudna, who is also a professor at the University of California, Berkeley.

In May, the group of ophthalmologists and others alarm bells in the mail are published in the Natural Method. The team used CRISPR to correct the genes that cause blindness in the mice. But when it comes to the rat, he finds an undesirable genetic mutation. Headlines on target targets and CRISI stocks collapsed.

The group challenges the group and thinks that, in general, fears of targets have been ignored. Scientists are aware of these mutations and technology is more accurate for academic research purposes. The problem just started when scientists sent KRISPR to a complex clinical trial.

Bondy-Denomy, a micro-UCSF biologist, discovered a “natural” way to overcome these ineffective effects. His research focused on races between bacteria and viruses, and years ago, Bondy-Denomy began testing intuition. If the bacteria defended the virus using KRISPR, he explained, the virus may have the answer to fight. She is right. The virus produces “anti-CRISPR” proteins that catch Cas9 and compromise its genetic modification capabilities. He published his results in Cell in January 2017. “This is a switch,” he said.

In the summer

Doudna, Bondy-Denomy and their friends have been using this virus counter to reduce the target effect. In Science Advances, the team described in detail how to use the CRISPR to make changes and then perform anti-KRISPR to prevent scissors Cas9 from running.

The technique can help the CRIS move from the laboratory to therapeutic applications that must be fully implemented, said Doudna. Another team seeks ways to prevent inappropriate effects. For example, a team that edited the human embryo earlier this year did not identify the inappropriate effects, because the preparatory work was to keep the KRISPR in a shorter margin.

However, these genetic modifier antidote can use other important uses. Security experts, such as former national intelligence director James Clapper, fear that KRISPR will make it easier for bioterrorists. Bondy-Denomy states that people have been attacking the CRISPR attacks on humans or humans

This is how Opioids work

This is how Opioids work

By the end of the 1980s, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry injected rigid right leg rats with the full range of Freund, a compound that causes inflammation, as part of a chronic medical test. One of the first drugs to be transmitted is morphine.

When they study, they find that the morphine has been the object of their choice.

But even scientists

have already remembered that weird. In the other back legs, which do not snap before, remain sensitive to the touch. With all morphine flowing in the rodent veins, and even the legs that need to grow. According to text books, morphine makes analgesic sores in the brain and central nervous system. Therefore, injection should quickly break down the body.

Planck Institute expansion states that medicines act locally. Some nerve cells, or neurons, in inflamed paws respond to morphine, and inflammation gives the zing’s ailments.

At first “we did not have an explanation,” said Christoph Stein, who led the research.

The staggering results of the Stein experiment will lead to a new course of drug-free research, the field that will receive more in the coming years. In the early 2000s, opioid dependence emerged as a national epidemic.

Today, between 21 and 29 percent of people who write opioids to chronic chronic pain. Even more irritating, the form of opioid pharmaceutical that is sold as color drugs can be 50 to 5,000 times stronger than heroin. In 2015, 2 million.

Americans suffer

from opioid addiction addiction and over 33,000 who have died of opioid overdose. In 2016, the number of victims has increased to over 42,000. In October 2017, the federal government announced the opioid epidemic as a public health emergency.

When using early offensive opposition such as the morphine dates back in the century, the current crisis began in the 1990s when the healthcare industry was toppled by management of illnesses and pharmaceutical companies that were marketed as non-meatuefazione products. Doctors have begun selecting new strong opioids, sometimes to eliminate small diseases. As a result, chemical pharmaceutical products inspired by opium poppy are called patch

Initially, quality of life has been good for many patients. However, by increasing the tolerance of opioids by users, health professionals have given a greater dose to maintain the effectiveness of drugs that eliminate the pain. An even greater dose provides the risk of negative side effects. In particular, opioids block sickness through mechanisms linked to the most important biological function in the body. Tinker with one, and more can be thrown out of whack.

The process

of pain … is a rather complicated system that has evolved over hundreds of millions of years,” explains Edward Bilsky, an opioid and provost officer at the University of Northwest of Health Sciences. “There are receptor opioid in many parts of the brain and spine.”

Some of these receptors release signals sent by the neurons when they get sick. Others activate dopamine release, causing euphoria and cravings for other dopamine. And others still manage to breath. During opioid overdose, respiratory tract is less sensitive to increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. “People will lose consciousness,” said Bilsky. “They’re dead in a few minutes.”

But opioid remains important for modern medicine. “Clinically, opioid is still one of the best ways to eliminate pain,” says Nathaniel Jeske, professor of professor at UT Health San Antonio School of Medicine. “They do not leave any time.”

Innovative opioid researchers – such as Jeske, Bilsky and Stein – identify medical needs for opioid and have to deal with serious side effects. Although these approaches vary, they all want biochemistry to control the cycles of addiction: to make life-threatening opioids without killing patients.

Trip Acid

Stein’s discovery in the late 1980’s of the relationship between analgesia and inflammation has opened up new ways to treat pain. Opioid blocks the face of a specific receptor on the surface

This is what kind of contraseptive male want

This is what kind of contraseptive male want

Imagine the scenes: hands out, bogged cuffs, hunters in the African savannah pulled a slow breath when the scenery started. Maybe it’s impala, maybe even an elephant or a giraffe – an animal that you can think is very big to eliminate one archer. But the arrow has a secret weapon: the poison that kills a man. Extract from plants sub-Saharan Africa, this compound prevents the liver, sometimes within minutes.

Surprise: The toxin that stops this heart can be the best choice for male contraception.

At the molecular level, the cause is. Throughout the body, membrane proteins control the outer and outer salts of the cells, which are the main challenges for survival and cell function. Ouabain molecules bond with enzymes used by proteins in this process and prevent interchange.

Ouabain traditionally

affects the heart cells, causing a heart attack. However, earlier this year, the researchers announced that they had changed their molecules to address the enzymes used by the type of protein found only in the sperm.

When enzymes are absorbed and damaging the process of exchange of cells, the sperm will lose the ability of the swim – and the sperm can not beat the egg if it is not approachable. Early research on mice indicates that the drug is safe and effective.

“I was thinking about how to think about male contraceptive agents,” said Gunda Georg, head of the pharmaceutical chemistry department of the University of Minnesota. Georg, author of a study on the potential of contraception from overseas, published in January in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. “Nothing changes, everything has been developed normally, but once it’s ejaculated, [sperm] can not be moved again.”

Georg worked on various contraceptive research projects, but was particularly excited about the potential of ending up giving new choices to control pregnancy.”I’m optimistic about this particular approach and project,” he said. “I have a feeling that can be a champion.”

It will take years before male contraceptives are based on pharmacy racks, if not. Scientists have tried to develop male contraceptives for more than forty years, with little to demonstrate their efforts. It’s a tough road, full of death and roads. But a small group of researchers are still looking for a very tough winner.

Do not know

People, our debt to the G.D. Searle & Co. – Great time.The first drug to get FDA approval for hormonal birth control pills, Searle can cause more than half a century for women to control the reproductive system.

Today, nearly 10 million women in the United States in the form of pills and about 80 percent have been used at some point in life. The ability to prevent pregnancy has had a greater female sexual freedom and makes it easier to follow education and career before choosing to start a family.

The people were glad to be able to do so. After all, they have a condom for use, and if people want to do everything, vasectomy is an option.There is no good way, but. In laboratory tests, condoms have a failure rate of only 2%. But in the real world, where condoms are sometimes misused, the rate increases by more than 10 percent.

And when vasectomies are almost 100% effective, they are, for the most part, irreversible. Not many, especially younger ones, are happy to join.

Compare this option to people with the distance they can share with women, who can control them, as pills, patches, strokes, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and more that are available to people who do not want to be pregnant.

Some of the most famous, such as contraceptive pills, act on the hormone balance that regulates menstruation and ultimately prevents the release of mature eggs from the ovary. Given the success of how hormones work for women, researchers have turned many testosterone many times as potential male contraceptives.

The first drug manufacturer to get FDA approval for hormonal birth control pills, G.D. Searle & Co. has allowed women to control the system that was published more than half a century ago

One day blood test may detect cancer

One day blood test may detect cancer

The diagnosis of cancer is quite fun. But the ability of cancer cells to hide in the body after first treatment is especially trivial. And yet unknown patients still have residual illnesses.

Even some cancer cells that survive can develop at the moment, depending on the original site – milk or colon, for example – to form tumors on other parts of the body. Since the new tumor has grown enough to appear in CT scan, the cancer may not be cured.

When cancer patients seek treatment, fluid from early therapy such as radiation can cause tumors of new and old tumors. And traditional biopsy, a sample of pathological tissue that examines the microscope to explain the signs of cancer, can be difficult to obtain from internal organs such as the lungs.

For all these reasons, physicians have high expectations for technology still in the adult age is a liquid biopsy, which seeks cancer in the body fluids. Can identify cancer patients who are infected after primary care and effective therapeutic help for these people.

Cancer hunting

Liquid biopsies are a result of genetic research, which causes a strong understanding of DNA cancer. The doctor now knows that a tumor has its own molecular model.

Liquid biopsies can detect typical cell DNA that tumors release body fluids, and quickly. This is often more perceptive than CT. The blood is the preferred medium for current liquid biopsy, although eventually other fluids such as urine and saliva can be played for some types of cancer.

But each clinic can take blood samples, and cancerous dna reliably migrates to the blood, sometimes as a fragment, which is also sufficient for many fluid biopsy tests to read.

Geoffrey Oxnard, a specialist oncologist at lung cancer at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, is working on liquid biopsy in practice. “We can see the evidence of cancer genome in the DNA of patient fluctuations, and we have a more sensitive way to find a low cancer rate,” says Oxnard.

The key challenge with technology is the development of tests that are quite sensitive to detect the low concentration of DNA dying cancer that floats in millions of blood cells.

“Even with patience with stage IV cancer, tests still do not see cancer 20 to 30% of the time,” Oxnard says. Therefore, if the liquid biopsy test returns negative, the physician should continue to use biopsy standards for the patient.

But fluid biopsies also point to a more acceptable treatment for some lung cancer patients. “If a patient with IV lung cancer does not have specific symptoms in the [specific], it can get effective oral therapy with some side effects and dramatic responses,” says Oxnard. The alternative is chemotherapy, which can be less effective and have side effects.

In the clinical context, fluid biopsy tests designed to detect one or two genes can now count hundreds of dollars; Larger panels, with larger genes, can generate thousands of dollars.

Detection of the disease

Liquid biopsy will then bring technology to identify patients who have cure early cancer of certain types and who appear treated by CT scan, but still have remaining illnesses.

Different types may give the patient a second chance, said Ben Ho Park, a researcher and doctor at the Comprehensive Cancer Center Sidney Kimmel at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore. Because there is no reliable way to inform those who still have microscopic cancer cells in the body and who do not, standard care now often only cure every person with follow-up therapies.

Researchers find that ultimately the fluid biopsy tests will identify the people with cancer, to prevent unnecessary illness and to treat more effective treatments for those who need it.

Liquid biopsy (Click to expand)
Cancer can go to the bloodstream, like a single cell or free DNA fragment. In the future, fluid biopsy can give an example