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How to make Biochemist Engineering protien from startch

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How to make Biochemist Engineering protien from startch

At the elegant biochemical laboratory at the University of Washington, Yang Hsia’s post-doctoral colleagues are yellowish goiter – the remains of E. coli – turned upright from white marshmallows. “This is not fun,” he said.

When the growth of proteins in bacteria purification, using a thick white resin as a filter, does not create such visibility, an incredible final product. Accumulation of Hsia resins is a total protein, not as anything that looks natural, which can only be a good frame for the first universal flu vaccine.

David Baker, Hsia consultant, calls “protein starch” protein proteins. The structure is similar to the famous super star Wars weapon. Although microscopic, for protein standards it is very large: a sphere composed of multiple fragments.

Black DeathProtein

made by Star Death.protein Design Institute”We find a way to insert blocks of these buildings along the right side to form the nanostructure,” Baker explains. They plan to study outside with the proteins of the whole flu family, so the immune system learns to identify and ready to expel the future invaders. A Death Star will bring 20 different strains of influenza.

Baker hopes this collection will cover the various possible combinations of flu mutations. This is a one-to-one preview of current flu strains and the season can replace the annual shoot-out: get Death Star vaccination and you’ll have the necessary antibodies in your blood.

When Baker relied on protective designs to defeat the flu, there was also a rejection of David Baker.Having revolutionized protective research – molecules that carry out an important task in every cell of every natural organism – Baker is now enjoying a call to promote nature.

By the end of 2017, the Project Philanthropy Open created the University of Washington’s Protein Design Institute for more than $ 10 million to develop Star Death and support Rosetta, a software platform designed in the 1990s to determine how to integrate the protein.

Rosetta has allowed Baker’s laboratories not only to promote basic science and to apply new vaccine, but also to make genetic disorders, biosensors to detect poisons and enzymes to convert waste into biofuels.

The national team currently has about 80 students and doctoral students and Baker is related to everything. Challenge your assumptions and modify your experiments while maintaining any environment where ideas can come from anyone. They determine the operation as a “general brain”. In the last century, the brain produced 450 scientific publications.

“David is doing a new field of chemistry in front of us,” said Raymond Deshaies, senior vice president of scientific research at Amgen biotechnology company and biologist at Caltech. “She has one more after another.”

Origami Alam

When Baker studied philosophy at Harvard University, he participated in a biology course that taught about what was called a “folding protein problem.” In 1983, scientists are still trying to produce experiments, held in the 1960s by Christian biochemist Anfinsen, who announced the fundamental building blocks of all life on Earth, much more complicated than the people they were.

Expression is relatively simple. Anfinsen mixes with protein ribonuclease samples – releasing RNA – with a denaturant, a killer. Then he allows denaturant to evaporate. Protein has been done again as nothing.

What makes this simple experiment so adorable is the fact that the amino acids in protein molecules are put into a three-dimensional form that makes origami look like a kid. When the denaturant starts from the

Anfinsen ribonuclease, there are several rolled-out methods, which cause different structures as origami cranes and paper planes. Just as the paper cuts off a piece of paper can fly through the room, only the pattern will produce a functional ribonuclease. This is why this problem: how does the protein “know” the way to do it right?

“Anfinsen suggests that this information is a structure and activity in the order of amino acids,” said David Eisenberg, a biochemist from the University

Lost junglee of maya is here

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Lost junglee of maya is here

 

I looked at my eyes, trying to make a line on rainforest dense vegetation. There is a small bump, which does not extend beyond the foot or two of the forests.

Archaeologists at Ithaca College have determined the remains of the Mayan cemetery, a giraffe that crossed rough streets. We are a full day from civilization, stopping between remains of a once populous kingdom.

The front of the road is just one of the vast network that leads to the surrounded ruins, artificial limbs, fortifications and so on, not all scattered throughout the forest.

In more than a thousand years since the Mayan community collapsed, the forest was back in revenge. A flood of flora has devastated roads and temples, turning the structure of rock into blocks and indivisible lumps of natural topography.

Garrison,

an expert on selecting a buried structure, has been on the road for years, not knowing where he is. But now, a revolutionary technology called lidar gives archaeologists the protection of the rainforest for God – and what they are doing below.

Lidar, who firmly defended the light and its inclination, assisted the forest reservoir in the laser beam flow powered by planes. When the light comes back, it creates a precise map of the surface of the ground under the forest.

Back in the camp, Garrison collects data on the laptop. Mayan ruins emerge from unrelated areas, giving new meanings to the landscape that surrounds us. The basis of research looks like a small group of buildings; in the surrounding, hundreds of Mayan split structures in each direction. Some Garrisons know – most, but, brand new. To, at least.

In 2016, Garrison and a group of archaeologists organized a loose alignment in the heart of Maya civilization, once concentrated in the Guatemalan plains. Scattered covering 800 miles across the Peten region, which covers some parts of northern Guatemala. It’s just a fragment of the previous Maya region, but lidar has announced approximately 60,000 unknown structures before.

Researchers now know the size of all this ancient civilization, from the larger trade and agriculture developing the sophistication of military sophistication. After decades, the use of new dimensions and various Mayan communities.

Flash on Panorama

More than a thousand years ago, the Maya led the region. They appeared in about 1000 BC and, through the millennia below, became the main Mesoamerican civilization.

Billions of people live in this forest, members of the alliance that interconnect with the state alliance. Maya forms a system of writing, as well as advanced astronomy and graphing systems.

In a non-metallic world, they built a fun temple in cities like Tikal and Chichen Itzá, as well as roads, reservoirs, irrigation networks and fields. Its civilization is more than a thousand square kilometers from central Central America.

Guatemala-Map

Scroll Lids from individual locations in North Guatemala have announced many hidden structures. Scan future will probably include more sites.Alison Mackey / DiscoverIn the past, archaeologists used small excavated sites to illustrate the purpose of this broad-based civilization. This gives us a limited picture of Maya.

We unravel the secrets of the Mayan language, escaping the forest to sites like Tikal and ancient museums with ancient artifacts. These efforts have been announcing many details about Maya’s life, but not all. Some mysteries remain. How comfy is the company? How does the city grow, fall and grow again?

And how does civilization passed by the Age of Wesi come from a forbidden forest – just to collapse?

“If we only pursue a small area, you will see this Maya revelation,” says Timothy Hare, professor of anthropology at Morehead State University, following the same mapping project.

Lidar describes the ancient society in a wider context. Underlying and hill is now considered a shrine and fortress linked to suburban and agricultural land.

“You recognize the connection between large areas, as only for informational information from the mound or pyramid or temple,” said Stephen Houston, the Mayan archaeologist of the Brown University who worked with the Garrison team. “Suddenly everything is connected, all of it

Is Nuclear Reactor will change the space exploration

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Is Nuclear Reactor will change the space exploration

You want to start a space colony? Even if you do not, space agencies around the world do. Whether it’s a lunar basis now, far from the Trump government’s plan for NASA, or Mars land next time, the colony needs much power.

And given the possibility of a dust storm that can not destroy the light on the Red Planet and the moon with irregular amounts of light, the solar panels can not fire. But do not worry: National Labs Los Alamos have plans.

It is based on nuclear energy, which, in fact, includes the exploitation of energy given by radioactive elements. Often, this energy comes from a process called fission, when neutrons roll through the nucleus of nuclei, divide it. A nuclear reactor acknowledges this mess and uses the heat produced to produce energy.

Now, Los Alamos experts aim to get a new generation of nuclear reactors into space. Kilopower is best known as Kilopower: an absorbent paper roller reactor size, fitted in a high residual protective case, weighs 900 kilograms.

It is based on the divisions of uranium atoms and generates up to one kilowatt power – enough to handle 10 43-inch LED TVs for hours or, more practical, rover like Opportunity, currently roaming on Mars, for about six and a half hours.

Surprisingly, there is no new Kilopower component. NASA works on a nuclear reactor that has been set up since 1958. But according to David Poston, Los Alamos nuclear engineer who has developed the technology, the program “has become very expensive or has long been funded”.

However, NASA relies on thermoelectric generator generators (RTGs) called “small generators” (RTGs), small generators filled with isotope plutonium – shorter and shorter elements. RTGs provide the energy of heat produced by this isotope decay, rather than wrap any atoms.

Kilopower’s uranium fuels are far too far, but the real beauty of Kilopower is “the way we collect it,” says Poston. He and Patrick McClure, another Los Alamos nuclear engineer, have discovered a way to use newer parts in new technology. The reactor, which separates these atoms, is actually in the hot pipes.

Typically, the heat pipe emits heat which is a byproduct of radioactive decay. However, the Kilopower tube explodes heat and uses the power to produce one of many power generating machines. There are also nuclear emissions, but still a safe device

people can approach a few minutes at a time while living, and when it’s dead, the radiation is less quickly than you would live on Mars. (Unlike Earth, Red Planet is less magnetic field to block harmful solar radiation.)

Poston and McClure have completed phase of the prototype phase to test the potential of the system. They are trying their current version with a series of simulated challenges –

it involves the flying colors.

And time can not be more perfect. With plutonium barriers making RTGs less useful, NASA needs new energy sources for the next mission. Kilopower’s first test, on the lunar mission of the robot, may arrive in the month of 2020.

The first proposal of the agency also includes a north pole charging station, and Kilopower can meet the bill. The reactor filled two autonomous missiles at around 250 watts while exploring the area.

In that case, the next will be the fleet of kilopter Kilopower. This 10 kilowatt reactor can lead the base of the Red Planet. Human habitats need more than 15 kilowatts to run smoothly, with the rest of the power to refill the equipment.

Kilopower’s

use extends beyond the moon moon and Mars base. The best, said Poston, uses a reactor for something called an electric propulsion. This will require Kilopower’s complete electric motor and other fuel sources to spin rocket and project, allowing them to study detailing far-flung objects like Jupiter and Pluto.

In addition, the reactor also has some Earth based applications. “We actually have plans for sea floor or island or Arctic, maybe a military base in the theater the war, or even a disaster relief,” says McClure. “There are many applications for this

Some cities in neatherland grow food for world

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Some cities in neatherland grow food for world

There is no Amsterdam canal history or modern architecture that is thick of Rotterdam. In fact, Wageningen is only a university, classified as a major agricultural research center in the world. Most of these institutions focus on how to save humanity in the coming decades and work absolutely necessary: ​​In 2050, Earth, which now hosts around 7.5 million lives, can have about 2 million people.

On top of Wageningen’s research priorities is protein, or easier to find more – and we need to find more food. Take 1 kilogram of animal protein using about 7.5 kilograms of vegetable protein, which is consumed by the animal when it grows. Approximately 80 percent of agricultural land has been used for grain provided for livestock. The calculation is simple: if we do not change the way we eat, and quickly, it will not be enough protein for the population to increase.

The best news is that scientists in places like Wageningen are looking for alternative alternatives to non-soy animal products, now based: food staple, vegetables, microalgae, algae and insects that can be cooked and make a poop machine, literally, to evaluate the shopping center.

Marcia-Barbosa

Bioprocess engineer Maria Barbosa enhances microalgae in a photobioreactor tube that is designed for high production and low energy consumption. Varieties of cultivars, such as Nannochloropsis and Tetraselmis, can be a cheap and persistent protein source, mixed with food or food with livestock.

Nout Steenkamp

Located in the middle of the open field, microalgae cultivation facilities in Wageningen are silent. The snow fell yesterday, and the contrast between the white powder and the green photovoltaediator was delightful, dozens of thick-barreled tubes scattered in a basket-sized area.

The production of this facility is required early in the day, but Maria Barbosa, a bioprocess engineer, mentions that the color is brighter when microalgae is active. Some glass tubes are horizontally spread on the ground, while others are arranged in vertical lines rich in green radiators. Furthermore, there is a small pool, even for microalgae.

By comparing seasonal growth to different systems, researchers are learning the best balance between high productivity and less energy consumption. In the 2017 study, for example, Barbosa and friends find that, in the fall, microalgae cultivation in horizontal tubes requires up to 30% electricity less than the vertical.

An open-ended partner may be good in the summer – but lower seasonal temperatures and temperatures can interfere with production.photobioreactorA cross section of the tube indicates a solution that expands with microalgae.

Robin Utrecht

In theory, microalgae can be a source of protein too. Some, such as spirulina, contain up to 70% protein in dry weight and have all the essential amino acids that humans can survive. However, there is no reason why you can not remove the spirulina strobes.

The cultivation of this microscopic organism is still inefficient and expensive for Barbosa and her colleagues in Wageningen.

Barbosa’s favorite microalgae is Nannochloropsis, a genus of marine species that grows easily. Another best option, Tetraselmis that is intensely green, productive even in the cold climate of the Netherlands, you can get 30 tons per hectare – about 13.4 US tons per hectare.

“This means 15 tons of protein per hectare,” he said. By comparison, 1 hectare of land used for raising livestock can produce less than kilograms or less beef. Furthermore, microalgae can be produced in places that can not be found, such as marginal soil or even in the ocean.

Barbosa believes that the first major application of microalgae protein will be given salmon or shrimp. Microalgae proteins can also be added to existing foods, such as bread: already in the bakery in Wageningen. Barbosa also tried microalgae ice cream and pizza was prepared with her friends. Even though they admit that they can be a little bit on the side of the fish, they are confident we will see microalgae proteins that have been added to many products over the years. Strawberry nannochloropsis may be far ahead, though “in principle

This Technology helps in make telipoart in real

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This Technology helps in make telipoart in real

On October 31, 1936, six young shipowners nicknamed “Rocket Boys” were burned on the ground to try to save themselves from Earth’s gravity.

The group has been around the abyss at San Gabriel California’s mountain to test a small jet engine that is concerned about alcohol. He wants to show that a rocket engine could spans space, at a time when these ideas were heavily spotted. This goal is disturbed when the oxygen line is exhausted and becomes louder.

Hatred of Rocket Boys earns the attention of the aerodinamisist Theodore von Karman, who has worked on both Caltech. Not far from the site of the crash, they issued a small test area where Rocket Boys resumed experiments.

In 1943, the site became a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and von Karman was the first director. Since then, JPL has grown into a large NASA field center with thousands of employees, but has been able to establish the founder’s motivation: test exploration boundaries, conquered conventions.

They have been successful over the years

In the early 1970s, JPL engineers built the Pioneer 10, the first spacecraft to pursue the speed of the solar system. Over the next few years, she followed Voyagers 1 and 2, the fastest growing range of objects set up for interstellar spaces.

From the start of Space Space to the launch of the Voyager spacecraft – only two decades – missile scientists have double speed. But after decades of decades, another spacecraft only accompanied the Voyagers out of the solar system, and nothing was done quickly. Now JPL’s criminals are nervous again and silence the next big jump.

The ongoing theme of the new effort is that the solar system is not enough. It’s time to venture beyond the known planet, to the star. John Brophy, a JPL aviation engineer, developed a new machine that could boost space travel by other factors 10.

Leon Alkalai, architect of the JPL missionary, had planned a far-flung journey that would not have been possible, Icarus arrived at the sun. JPL scientist, Slava Turyshev, is perhaps the most unusual idea in all, a space telescope that can provide intimate glimpses of a far-flung planet like Earth – without ever being there.

These are all long shots (not all crazy, according to Brophy), but even if one is successful, the implications will be very large. The Rocket Boys and their friends helped launch human beings as spatial species.

The current generation at JPL can be that will bring us between interstellar.The orbiting laser system can use cloud-powered vehicles through the solar system and can be used again.

Reaction rocket

For Brophy, inspiration comes from Breakthrough Starshot, a luxurious and courageous project announced in 2016 by late Stephen Hawking and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner. The main purpose of the project is to build a 1-mile laser light that can fix the miniature spacecraft with 20 percent light speed, so it can reach Alpha Alpha’s star system (our star’s neighbors) in two decades.

Brophy was hesitant but fascinated. Ambition aspiration is not new to her. “JPL allows people to think outside the box, and the upcoming idea is a time threatening,” he said. Even with this standard, the Starshot concept is very interesting from the reality of technology. But she began to think that she could take the same concept, but resize it to be real in our lives.

Brophy is a favorite of the Starshot laser-style idea to help manage the rocket equation, which illustrates the movement of the spacecraft into the amount of propellation it performs. The rocket equals attacking each space explorer with its cruel logic. If you want to move faster, you need more fuel, but more fuel adds mass.

The more mass you need more fuel for extra weight. The fuel is even more severe, and more. Therefore, a 1.4-megaphone rocket is required for the 1,800-pound Voyager probe: the weight of almost all gasoline.

Since the graduate student year in the late 1970s, Brophy has developed a more efficient missile technology known as ion propulsion. The ionic motor uses electricity to fire atoms