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Human gene is Controversial for science

Human gene is Controversial for science

Modifications of human genes are controversial. Shoukhrat Mitalipov does not hear
A research group in Oregon wants to use the CRISPR to end the hereditary disease – even if the fear of spreading to children by brand.

The sperm sperm moves gently through the sepia laptop screen. Normally, the embryo tells me more quickly, but these children are the sticky fluid that can overcome them. It makes it easier to take.

The needle is thin, hollow into the scene from the screen to the right and towards the toy. The device sucks, the first queue. The smaller circle remains visible in the spermatozoon term.Quick screen on the new screen. Spermatozoa disappears and is replaced by larger eggs and fluctuations. Human egg

Another device came on the screen, pushing one of the eggs to swim like a good ball. After another try, a device like a finger to catch the egg, using a soft suction to hold it.

The producer of the show is Nuria Marti-Gutierrez’s researcher, who sits on a microscope near the screen, never taking the eyes of his future as a hand maneuver through half-key buttons and dials. The process is not visible to the naked eye. Each of these acts applies to a microscopic stage.

Spinning the screen, empty sperm causes quick pitbits to take an additional solution before it looks back, ready and ready.

In the egg, the eggs will be injected not only with the sperm but with the CRISPR-Cas9 dose, a DNA editing system that allows scientists to cut down on the gene segment and replace it with others. If all else is good, the CRISPR system will create a single human embryo to repair the mutation that causes the disease in DNA.

This laboratory, at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) in Portland, is the only group in the United States to publish research on human embryos. Scientists are studying human genetic modification with the hope of treating specific hereditary diseases.

Since the claim in 2017 that succeeded in patogenetic mutation embryos, they faced the brutal reaction of scientists and opposition to the human genome. Now, after Chinese researchers announced the birth of gene-editedtwin girls by the end of 2018, they will have more resistance to extermination before bringing the technology to the clinic.

Twin birth

Perhaps no one is surprised to hear that genetically modified children are born in China rather than the Central OHSU group for embryonic cells and gene therapy, led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov. “I feel that all legitimate groups

Announcement by Chinese researchers, He Jiankui last November came at the Editing Human Genome International Summit in Hong Kong. He has to talk about his work shortly after his partner Mitalipov Paula Amato, a professor of maternity and gynecology and a doctor at the OHSU clinic of fertility.

“I was rather surprised to hear that someone dared to transfer this embryo and make a pregnancy, because of the uncertain situation,” Amato said. Mitalipov thinks that genetic editing technology will not be ready for clinical trials – such as tests of real pregnancy – for more than 5 to 10 years.

Beyond the scientific challenge, legal and ethical considerations usually establish this research rapidly. In the year 2017, the National Academy of Sciences and Sciences declared ethnoi and scientists to determine whether, and how to allow changes in the human germ line – DNA changes that will continue in the coming generations. The criterion of the report is an international guideline for research on the human genome.

Scientists are best 

But his work can not be determined, which produces huge replicas and ethics throughout the world. For example, the National Academy report determines that DNA modification should prevent hereditary disease. However, she started with a healthy gene

Genetic Matchmaking is true George Church

Genetic Matchmaking is true George Church

The single obsession reflects the life of the Church of George. He wants to open every human cell machine on Earth and read the genetic project.

Tall and thin with a large white beard and matched hair, Katon’s church was like Hogwarts when he was at Harvard Medical School, where he was a professor of genetics, three years ago.

The projects may appear miraculously. The Church has counted everything, from the old inversion to the eighth mammoth resurgence, and has helped launch the revolutionary Human Genome Project (HGP), which has completed human DNA.

But another goal – the Church never ceases to work – that can bring the greatest potential to bring life to our planet. Since HGP’s work, he has been trying to seize our remains. And you want to use this information to form the way you get our friends.

From father to son

The model of all life can be found in the DNA of these organisms. These wires are wrapped into a pack called chromosome; humans have 23 pairs. At the time of birth, one embryo received a copy of each – including tens of thousands of genes – from every single parent.

Free downloads: how DNA makes you do you.Generally, the genes for a particular character are dominant or recessive. The dominant gene attacked the recess. Thus, the child has dominated the dominant gene and the genes of the genes are purified by the properties dominated by the dominant genes.

Most of us have a clean genes for various diseases in our DNA. We can survive by accident because we also have a healthy and dominant copy of the genes.

But when two older people require a copy of the diseased gene to have children, there is a risk that the longevity can be found with two copies of the defective gene. In the world, around 5% of children are born with severe birth defects caused by a single gene.

However, if each of us has its own genome sequence – and it is used for selecting lovers – we can change. The Church considers the effort to cause approximately 7,000 genetic diseases, from sickle cell anemia to cystic fibrosis. Potentially, they say, can save 50 million people each year. This is the purpose of the Church.

He compared the genome sequence on the Internet in the early 1990s. Of course, there are, but people do not know what to do. The potential of the revolutionary survives, will not be locked.

There are some things that prevent the Church’s dreams. Until recently, the genome sequence price is complete, and not enough people will get the order – either because they do not see the value or have privacy issues. The Church and others have solved the first problem. Now, she is sure that she has found another solution.

Kuncine Alta

For five days, in December 1984, Hurricane pilots High Ski Area in the Wasatch Mountains outside Salt Lake City. In the dust competition, the world’s best geneticists live on a foundation and brainstormed. The US Government invites them to help detect genetic mutations between the victims of atoms and their children.

Understanding: technology is not yet, but it may. As a progressive snowman, the government unintentionally launches the biggest and most expensive research effort in history: HGP.

The church was in the middle of the speech. Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1984, a thesis on genome sequencing techniques has calculated a number of basics for what works as $ 3 billion. However, when the first sequence of human genomes last published in 2003, in the Church, this was just the beginning.

In the next year, he advised or founded dozens of scientific projects and biotech companies. Common thread: bring genome sequence to the idea.

With the launch of the Personal Genome Project in 2005, the Church’s research team began creating a massive genome database of volunteers – while generating 10,000 genomes. He also worked with 23andMe genetic testing companies since its launch in 2006.

He also started Veritas Genetics, which now leads the cost of all genome sequences with an analysis of less than $ 1,000. “We have reduced the cost of approximately 10 million times,” says the Church. And in the past years, he expects technology improvements to reduce costs in other ways.But along the way, he knows that reducing costs are not enough to reach or

This is all about Gravitational Waves

This is all about Gravitational Waves

In February 2016, Albert Einstein made history again. Currently, physicists have declared that he has determined the great theories that scientists have determined 100 years before: the waves of gravity.

The first laser-gravitational Observatory of Interferometer (LIGO) was first confirmed in the gravitational wave-space-distortion distances, literally completing the universe of the universe – an extraordinary task of earning the Nobel prize for key developers.

The latest sources of the waves are as fantastic as the detected engineering: two broken black holes, large gravity that sends undulations all over the cosmos.

This result, the longest climax, 

But when he resolved the problem of presence or not of the wave of gravity, he was also the starting point for a new journey.

First, astronomy is based on only electromagnetic radiation and exotic particles such as neutrino and cosmic rays. But small-scale gravitational forces, along with new capabilities to see, have brought new ways to studying the universe.

The gravitational wave provides free play on a fixed-line research, when announcing the phenomenon that has never been found and can not imagine.

Excessive (and unavailable) about a brutal incident between black holes and super-objects, the gravitational wave may also show us what appeared in a small part of Big Bang itself. They can also show us how the universe has expanded since then.

And when it comes to gravitational waves confirm Einstein’s solid principles, researchers can now comply with the general relativity for the most severe tests, perhaps ending the disability.

The researchers have studied five topics that started for exploration during the astronomical wave of gravity.

The first black hole

In the sense, the black hole is a simple object. Each point in the universe is done with mass more than it can be handled, it can form singularity – an almost infinite point where the rule of ordinary physics rules. No one comes close, including light discourse, can eliminate the attraction of gravity.

In the middle of every black hole, astronomers believe, lies the singularity of this kind.The oldest black hole found more than 13 billion years ago, around 690 million years after the Big Bang, but the former will have a previous period: in the small part of the Big Bang. (Theorists have properties that form when

R. Fuller, National Science Foundation

With these assumptions, these primordial black holes differ from those of the more general ones, which are formed when large stars nile nuclear fuel and can not resist their own gravity.

As a result, when a normal black “star” hole is regarded as a combined feature of the universe, the primordial black hole has remained hypothetical and mysterious half-century. But the new technique, based on the gravitational wave, can cause its occurrence.

Astrophysicists Savvas Koushiappas from Brown University and Avi Loeb from Harvard University have come up with a simple way to find primordial black holes. It is a move to the gravitational ripples caused by colliding black holes ancient, the best way to detect today.

The primordial black hole was first proposed in 1966 by Russian scientists Yakov Zeldovich and Igor Novikov. Stephen Hawking was developed over the next five years. Since then, researchers have been searching for evidence in the primordial black hole.

The duo started believing that in primordial primordial universe the black hole was the only possible type, because it was a black star hole that could not be formed before the stars.

Then, if it is possible that a pair of black bores can occur, explaining that any gravity ripples seen before must be caused by a primordial black hole.

Based on the conservative hypothesis, they found that the first black star hole would not be formed and would cost up to 67 million years after the Big Bang.


Effect of cosmetics on health

Effect of cosmetics on health

If there is one good thing, it will make a lot of people. We are a productive children producer that 7 billion of us now roam the planet. But our reproductive ability can be printed quickly. Because of the many populations, only environmental damage or exploration, we also love to reach out to foreign planets.

And Mars needs mother and father. But because of the brutal radiation scattered on the ground and the difficulty of returning to gravity, it is easier to say than to finish.

Researchers know that space travelers can be harmful to human health by NASA’s Gemini mission in the 1960s. Scientists note that the capacity of bones in the astronaut’s foot before is less than 6% after less than two weeks in space. Contract muscles faster.

And since then, we have learned cosmic rays, anywhere in space and space stations, causing cancer and tissue disease and ultimately proving harmful to DNA and nervous systems.

Spaces are a place that can be regarded as humble, as well as for trained astronauts. Will there be a fragile environment with new embryos, fetuses and infants? How to disrupt our reproductive system at the outset? The answer remains unknown. Scientists do not know if women can even conceive, let alone get pregnant on board.

With the biology that is used against us, researchers are still trying to answer the important questions: how will we make the kid happy and healthy in space?

Sperm, meet the egg

Every aspect of creation of a child in space.No one has ever had sex on the spot, as we know it. Without gravity, the fact of easily holding your partner in hand to do anything can prove difficult.

And then the sperm and functional egg cells still need to be found to start over pregnancy, which requires a lot of mobile cellular action.

Over the past decade, scientists have been working on overcoming the mystery of reproduction in space. After a space race, the astronauts began to transport fish, nematodes, frogs and salamanders in orbit to test the reproductive ability out of the universe.

In a series of disastrous surprises, all of them have produced healthy children. But among successors, scientists attacked the walls. At the Russian satellite site in 1979, male and female male mice failed to cure on a mission of 18.5 days or chose to have no type – a demonstration of practice that can not be found in rats on Earth. The next experiment with rats contains other concerns.


Mouse to assist healthy children who come from frozen sperm who have been flying to the International Space Station for 288 days.

Not like a muddy and fertile friend, the rodenticates are mammals, anatomy, physiology and gene similar to animals.

Teresa Woodruff, vice president of research at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Northwestern University, states that mice are the same so that all the problems we will see in the first pregnancy should be as we will see in our situation. Other researchers agree.

Only mammals have placenta. So, to know the environmental effects of the environment, we have to use mammals, says Teruhiko Wakayama, director of Yamanashi University’s Advanced Biotechnology Center in Japan.

He has been in the last ten years studying mammals – usually rats – can return to the board. Without gravity Earth pushes all the down, needs to walk, walk and drag the objects back into orbit. As a result, even our bones and muscles are strong.

Because this force is very important for its pregnancy, and it is important for the growing fetus, Wakayama wondered if rats could also contain these conditions.

In 2009, Wakayama extracted eggs and sperm from mice, then dropped them to a device that highlights microgravity (technical terms for directing gravity astronauts). He watched the sperm wing in the eggs and after a few days of microgravity, he and his implant implant embryos in the standard gravity of mice.

The result is mixed

when many healthy and normal kittens are born, many embryos do not develop properly after implantation. As a result, mice have less progeny than mice in normal gravity.

To see if these results remain in space, where high radiation levels are microgravity, Wakayama contacted Japan Aerospace Explo

Microbes are already find on mars

Microbes are already find on mars

Man has just two worlds in the solar system: the earth and the moon. But it is more famous that mars can become the next exclusive club. Along with NASA, SpaceX and private companies like Space One can not wait to put shoes on the Red Planet. Human exploration can also improve the science of Mars, but it may have important implications for life.

If you have ever lived in the neighborhood of the Red Earth, it is still an open question. Conditions in Mars do not support large creatures, but microscopic forms of life may occur in the ocean. They can also withstand today a scarlet pouch at the bottom and bottom of the Martian surface. If so, it may be similar to the forms of Earth’s life: life can be passed from the world to another horse pulled from the asteroid surface.

Alternatives will not be less important.

If Mars is pure, and researchers discover that living only on a single planet in the solar system, it is difficult for the living organisms, with the implications for the rest of the universe.

However, there is an automatic error in clarifying the mystery of “living on Mars”, the intrinsic passage of 22: every living creature who invests in life can destroy the area with its own microbes, so it does not know the truth.

NASA has proven the protocol to limit the contamination, but with the increase of personal effort and the possibility that humans can now enter Mars, the standard must also be replaced.

Steve Clifford, a senior research scientist in the non-profit Planetary Science Institute, thinks that any human landing made without serious precaution is good news. “If a commercial company is allowed to continue the program, Mars will be unstoppable when people first enter Mars,” he said. At that moment, we stumble our ambition and our desire.

Stop spreading

Interplanetary contamination is a real concern. When Apollo’s astronaut returned home after fifty years of lunar years, they were locked; Scientists are afraid that they can bring back substances that can cause them to spread to Earth.

When fears are not determined quickly, samples of the Martian material can bring harmful microscopic organisms. A strong quarantine method is to reduce this worry.

The more worrying, and even the real, is that it is likely that you are planet Earth Mars. Imagine the confusion that the instruments in the Red Planet find an organism, but they can not confirm that it is based on Mars or is applicable in a corrupted space setting.

As Ask Harrison, a Martian geologist at Arizona State University, said, “What if we destroy the greatest discoveries in human history?”

Clifford points to a worse scenario. What if the original life was on the Red Planet, but the upcoming microbes? “In his quest for life, we can be responsible for the extinction of the alien biosphere that begins,” he said.An enormous agreement was that in 1967, the United Nations ratified the Treaty of Principles governing State activities in the exploration and use of cosmic space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies.

More than feeling, the NASA Planetary Protection Office makes sure we do not remove other planets. Engineer is a clean and clean component of clean and clean vehicles, and a planet protection team created the surface of each spacecraft to ensure that the standard is high.

For example, officials assure that every Mars bullet does not bring more than 300,000 bacterial spores to space within the Martian range. (For comparison, the human body has about 40 trillion total microbes.)

But all this work is costly.

Former NASA planet protection officer, John Rummel, thinks that decontamination efforts increase the mission’s price by 14%, typically tens of millions of dollars – and this is only for a rover mission.

However, they think that they can be misled by the cost of Mars’s contamination forever. Unfortunately, putting people on the Planet Planet might mean spending the planetary protection in the windows.